Afifi, Traci, Derek Ford, et al; Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect
February 2017, Meifang Wang, Child Development
Brown, Alan S.; Holden, George W.; Ashraf, Rose, Psychology of Violence
Elizabeth T. Gershoff, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor. Spanking and Child Outcomes: Old Controversies and New Meta-Analyses.. Journal of Family Psychology, 2016
Elizabeth Gershoff, Shawna Lee, Inna Altschul, Journal of Marriage & Family
Catherine Taylor, Journal of Child and Family Studies
March 16, 2015, Jennifer E. Lansford et al, Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology
Save the Children & The Global Initiative to End All Corporal Punishment of Children
JAMA Pediatrics, April 28, 2014, David Finkelhor, PhD
Child Abuse & Neglect, March 3, 2014, Shawna Lee, Andrew Grogan-Taylor
American Psychological Association, February, 2014, George Holden, PhD
KRIMINOLOGISCHES FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT NIEDERSACHSEN E.V., 2014, Christian Pfeiffer, PhD. Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony, Hanover, G.ermany
Stefanie Kemme, Christian Pfeiffer, Journal of Family Violence
Early parental physical punishment and emotional and behavioral outcomes in preschool children
Child: Care, Health, and Development, February 24, 2013, S. Scott, J. Lewsey, L. Thompson, P. Wilson
Afifi, Tracie, Pediatrics, July 2013; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-4021
Child Abuse & Neglect, November 16, 2013, George Holden
Normal spanking in preschool years linked to increased aggression and poorer receptive vocabulary at age
Spanking and Development Across the First Decade of Life, Pediatrics, October 21, 2013, Michael J. MacKenzie, PhD
Maternal Warmth is Not Enough
Does Maternal Warmth Moderate Longitudinal Associations Between Maternal Spanking and Child Aggression in Early Childhood?, American Psychological Association, January, 2013, Gershoff, E.
Concise Summary: Spanking and Child Development: We Know Enough Now to Stop Hitting Our Children
Child Development Perspectives, Vol 7, #3, November 2013, Gershoff, E.
Parental spanking and subsequent risk for child aggression in father-involved families of young children
Children & Youth Services Review. Sep 2013, Vol. 35 Issue 9, p1476-1485. 10p, Lee, Shawna; Taylor, Catherine
Journal of Behavioral Medicine, September 2012, Michael E. Hyland, Ahmed M. Alkhalaf, Ben Whalley
Summary Analysis of the last 20 years of research on the effects of physical punishment on children.
Tracie O. Afifi, et al, Results from a Nationally Representative US Sample. PEDIATRICS, Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics
Editor-in-Cheif calls for Ban on Spanking in Home based upon the Research!
Spanking young children shows a transactional relationship increasing chance of more spanking (for boys) and cascading effect on future development from ages 1 – 3 and 3-5. Transactional and Cascading Relations Between Early Spanking and Children’s Social-Emotional Development
Journal of Marriage & Family, October 2012, Maguire and Gromoske
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2012, Joan Durrant PhD, Ron Ensom MSW RSW
Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5 Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study
Infant and Child Development Inf. Child. Dev. 21: 3–33 (2012), MacKenzie, M
Forms of Spanking and Children’s Externalizing Behaviors (Spanking Causes Acting Out Behavior, particularly in boys)
Family Relations Apr 2012, Lansford, JE
Spanking Stimulates Genetic Predisposition toward Anti-Social Behavior
Physical punishment and childhood aggression: the role of gender and gene–environment interplay, Brian B. Boutwell, AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, Volume 37, pages 559–568 (2011)
Michael MacKenzie, et al Child Youth Serv. Rev. August 1, 2011, pgs.1364-1373
The Pitzer College Student Journal of Psychology, Volume 1, Fall 2011, Tamara A. Hamai, Ann Isbell, and Lillian Ku,
Corporal punishment in schools showed reduced executive functioning, abstract thinking, delayed gratification. Suggests that a punitive environment not only fosters increased dishonesty but also children’s abilities to lie to conceal their transgressions.
University of Toronto Social Development, Volume 20, Issue 4, pages 805–824, November 2011
Victoria Talwar, McGill University, Stephanie M. Carlson, University of Minnesota and Kang Lee
Pediatrics 2010; 125:5 e1057-1065, Catherine A. Taylor, Jennifer A. Manganello, Shawna J. Lee, and Janet C. Rice
Duke Law, Law & Contemporary Problems, Volume 73, Number 2 (Spring 2010)
- Prevalence, Societal Causes, and Trends in Corporal Punishment by Parents in World Perspective; Murray A. Straus
- More Harm Than Good: A Summary of Scientific Research on the Intended and Unintended Effects of Corporal Punishment on Children, Elizabeth T. Gershoff
Child Abuse Review Vol. 20: 57–66 (2011), Published online 18 June 2010 in Wiley Online Library, (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/car.1128, Adam J. Zolotor
Reduced Prefrontal Cortical Gray Matter Volume in Young Adults Exposed to Harsh Corporal Punishment, NeuroImage, Volume 47, Supplement 2, August 2009, Pages T66–T71, Akemi Tomoda, MD, PhD, Ann Polcari, PhD and Martin H. Teicher, MD
Dr. Murray Straus, Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire
Columbus, OH: Center for Effective Discipline, Gershoff, E.
This is a summary analysis of research on physical punishment published by the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, CANADA
Dr. Murray A. Straus, Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire
Pediatrics June 2006, 117:6 2055-2064; doi:10.1542/peds.2005-2204, Brigitte Vittrup, George W. Holden, & Jeanell Buck
Pediatrics 2004; 113:5 1321-1330
Eric P. Slade and Lawrence S. Wissow
Dr. Bugental, The hormonal costs of subtle forms of infant maltreatment, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara; US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health; January 2003
Sweden banned spanking in the home in 1979, and has conducted a 30-year-long longitudinal study to understand its results….
What are the outcomes from the ban on spanking in Sweden over thirty years later? Read the longitudinal study by Sweden’s Ministry of Health & Social Affairs.
Spanking Infants and Toddlers: Maternal Belief and Practice
Pediatrics Vol. 95 No. 1 January 1, 1995 pp. 105 ‐111
Rebecca R. S. Socolar, Ruth E. K. Stein